A significant proportion of Nepal’s population lives in misery. Malnutrition is common, especially among children and women. More than one in three children are inhibited in the plant due to nutritional deficiencies.
Two out of three Nepalese stated in the early 2010s that they use firewood for cooking. While most people nowadays have access to electricity and clean water, fewer than half have access to functioning cleaning systems.
- Countryaah Official Site: Official statistics for population in Nepal, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
The percentage of residents living below the poverty line of $ 1.25 a day decreased from over 40 percent in the mid-1990s to around 25 percent in 2010. One important reason was the money that foreign-working Nepalese sent home to their relatives. However, the 2015 earthquake disaster in the Kathmandu Valley was a major setback for poverty reduction (see Modern History).
Especially in the mountainous regions the supply of food is uneven and uncertain. Poor sanitary conditions cause severe diseases such as cholera and tuberculosis to flourish. Most Nepalese lack health insurance or money to pay for health care.
During the 1960s and 1970s, many Westerners were attracted to Nepal by easily accessible marijuana. Since then, heavier drugs have begun to be abused by both foreigners and Nepalese youth. Today, HIV / AIDS is also a problem. The extensive labor migration abroad contributes to the spread of infection.
The poverty causes many Nepali girls and young women to end up in prostitution in Indian cities and in Persian Gulf countries. It is estimated that this amounts to 10,000 a year.
A diverse mix of people groups, large class differences and extremely varied nature and terrain paves the way for large variations in lifestyle in Nepal. It can be seen in various costumes, languages, eating habits and cultural expressions. At the same time, many elements are common to the vast majority of Nepalese. The dominance of the high-caste Hindus has meant that many other groups have followed their traditions and culture. Even the non-Hindu people are often informally included in the caste system and are usually placed between the high-caste groups chhetri and bahun and the caste-less Dalits.
The caste system previously meant that many professions were linked to caste. The system has been loosened up and in addition, most Nepalese support themselves as farmers, which is not discarded. The caste system is formally prohibited but lives on in both people’s conceptions and in the form of social classes: many of the poorest are caste-less, while the warrior and priestly castes belong to the elite.
A rapid modernization in recent decades makes Western ideals and influences increasingly evident. In the cities there is a growing group of well-to-do people who achieve status through education and occupation, and by owning cars and the latest electronics, rather than by throwing and land ownership, which has traditionally been an important status marker.
In most groups, arranged marriages are applied where the parents settle on suitable marriages with regard to caste belonging, ethnicity, prosperity and social status. It is common for the bride’s family to pay a large dowry, which can make it expensive to have many daughters. In some people groups, on the other hand, it is the husband’s family that gives great gifts to the woman’s family. Newly married couples often move in with the man’s family. Polygamy is prohibited but occurs to some extent. Among the more educated and in the cities, it is increasingly common with voluntary marriages to be entered into without parental involvement.
Homosexuality was legalized in 2007 and the country’s highest court has given a clear sign to gender-neutral marriage. It is possible to register as belonging to a third gender in Nepal. LGBTQ people, however, report harassment, even by government officials, despite progress.
The women are vulnerable
The woman’s position is weak. Domestic violence is very common. Many girls are given away at a young age, even though it is forbidden. Others fall victim to human trafficking and end up in prostitution. Women’s inheritance rights are limited. Relatively few women work in wages, although some are employed in trade and sewing. In agriculture, which is mainly self-sustaining, women perform heavy physical work such as collecting water, collecting firewood and washing clothes. The tradition of married couples living with the husband’s family often puts women in a difficult situation as they fall at the bottom of the hierarchy within the extended family. Often it is also about young girls rather than adult women.
Children also work a lot, especially in family farming. Infants are often carried in a shawl on the mother’s back. Slightly older children are also looked after and raised by older siblings and other family members. If money is scarce for school uniforms and books, especially poor families prefer to invest in boys’ schooling before girls. It is considered better pay, as daughters disappear from the family by marriage while sons remain.
FACTS – SOCIAL CONDITIONS
Infant Mortality: 27 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected: 0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men: 0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean water: 87.7 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to toilets: 62.1 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a percentage of GDP: 6.1 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person: US $ 45 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament: 33 percent (2018)
Peace agreement concluded with Maoist guerrillas
Nepal’s unifying government signs a formal peace agreement with the Maoist guerrilla CPN-M with a view to a definitive end to the war.
Transitional Government Settlement
After talks between Prime Minister Koirala and the Maoist guerrilla leader Prachanda, a settlement is reached that the guerrilla Maoist party CPN-M should be part of a transitional government that will oversee the election of a constituent assembly. The task of the latter is to prepare a proposal for a new constitution.
Arms rest is entered into with Maoist guerrillas
The new government enters into an armistice with the country’s Maoist guerrillas, Nepal’s Communist Party Maoists (CPN-M).
The king appoints a unifying government
The King reinstates Parliament and appoints Girija Presad Koirala of the Nepalese Congress (NC) as the new Prime Minister for a unifying government.