The territory between the Prut, Dniester and the Black Sea was inhabited by the Getes and Dacians in ancient times. From the 2nd to the 4th century AD, the Roman Empire dominated and romanized the southern areas, through which it gained access to the Bosporan Empire on the Sea of ​​Azov and the Crimea, which was under Roman sovereignty. At the mouth of the Dniester (known in ancient times as Tyras), Greek colonists from Miletus founded in the 6th century BC The city of Tyras (Romanian Cetatea Albă, today Bilhorod-Dnistrowskyj), which was then run by the Dacian king Burebista around 55 BC Was conquered and attached to his empire. The area of ​​Moldova, which was traversed by numerous peoples (Sarmatians, Goths, Huns, Avars, Slavs, Bulgarians, Magyars, Pechenegs, Cumans, etc.) in the 1st millennium AD was subject to the Golden Horde after the Mongol invasion (1241). The Principality of Moldova, founded in the east of the Carpathian Mountains during the 14th centuryincluded in the last decade of the 14th century the entire territory up to the Dniester and Black Seas. After the occupation of the cities (fortresses) Chilia and Cetatea Albă (1484), the Ottoman Empire made Tighina (Bender) and the south of Bessarabia Turkish Rajahs in 1538; the rest of the area remained part of Moldova (under Turkish sovereignty) until 1812. Through the Peace of Bucharest (May 28, 1812), which ended the Russo-Turkish War 1806-12, the eastern half of the Vltava, the area between Prut and Dniester (45,600 km 2 with around 500,000 residents, was removed) 86% Romanians), awarded to Russia. The name Bessarabia, which marked the southern part of the annexed territory, has now been extended to the entire territory in which Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Germans and Jews settled in the 19th century. In 1867 the Romanian language was banned from schools in Bessarabia.

Through the Peace Congress in Paris (1856), which ended the Crimean War, three districts in the south of Bessarabia (north of the mouth of the Danube) came back to the Principality of Moldova, but Russia succeeded in bringing them back at the Peace Congress in Berlin (1878). After the Russian February Revolution, Bessarabia proclaimed its autonomy in April 1917, on December 15, 1917 it took on the name “Moldovan Democratic Republic”, which proclaimed its independence on January 24, 1918. On April 9, 1918, the National Council that met in Chişinău voted for unification with Romania, which Soviet Russia did not recognize. On October 12, 1924, the USSR founded a Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (capital since 1929 Tiraspol) on the territory of Ukraine, in the areas east of the Dniester. As a result of the Secret Additional Protocol to the Hitler-Stalin Pact (August 23, 1939), the Soviet Union occupied both Bessarabia and northern Bukovina on June 28, 1940 (after two ultimatums to Romania on June 26 and 27, 1940). On August 2, 1940, the Moldavian SSR (summary of the Moldavian ASSR and most of Bessarabia) with the capital Chişinău as part of the USSR was proclaimed; Due to a German-Soviet resettlement agreement, the roughly 93,000 Bessarabian Germans left the country. By resolution of the Soviet government on November 4, In 1940 northern Bukovina and the districts of Hotin (in northern Bessarabia) as well as Ismajil and Cetatea Albă (in southern Bessarabia) became part of the Ukrainian SSR. During the Second World War Moldova was occupied by Romania from 1941 to 1944 and incorporated into its national territory (during this period the Jewish population was brutally persecuted, a large part was murdered or deported); After the reconquest by the Red Army (1944), the Moldavian SSR was reconstituted in its old proportions and recognized by Romania as part of the USSR in the Paris Peace Treaty (February 1947). Deportations of native Romanians and the immigration of Russians and Ukrainians changed the composition of the population considerably;

Under the changed conditions after 1985, which arose as a result of perestroika under M. S. Gorbachev, Moldova introduced Moldavian (dialect of Romanian) as the state language on August 31, 1989, combined with the return to the Latin alphabet (instead of the Cyrillic introduced in 1940) and declared its sovereignty within the USSR on June 23, 1990. On August 27, 1991, Moldova proclaimed its state independence.

Foreign policy

On December 21, 1991, according to educationvv, Moldova signed the CIS Founding Act (ratified by the Moldovan Parliament on April 8, 1994). Moldova became a member of the UN on March 2, 1992, and of the Council of Europe on July 13, 1995. On November 20, 1996, Moldova ratified the European Convention for the Protection of Minorities. A Russian-Moldovan agreement of August 10, 1994 stipulated the withdrawal of Russian troops stationed in the Dniester region within three years, but was initially not confirmed by the Russian State Duma. A partnership and cooperation agreement with the EU, signed by Moldova in 1994, entered into force on July 1, 1998. In 2001 Moldova became a member of the WTO. In 2009 Moldova and other countries established the “Eastern Partnership” with the EU. On June 27, 2014, Moldova and the EU signed an association agreement.

Despite a memorandum from 1997, which guaranteed the independence-striving Dniester region (Transnistria) extensive autonomy, the status question of the breakaway Dniester republic under its president Igor Smirnov (* 1941) remained unsolved. Russia undertook to withdraw its military stationed there in 1999, but repeatedly allowed the deadlines to pass. A peace plan presented by the Ukrainian President in 2005 aimed at a limited autonomy for the region and saw v. a. the increased involvement of the EU and NATO in conflict settlement. In 2006 a referendum took place in which the population voted for independence from Moldova. On December 30, 2011, Yevgeny Shevchuk (* 1968) new President of the Dniester Republic (Transnistria). In the same year negotiations on the conflict within the framework of the “5 + 2 format” (Moldova, Transnistria, Russia, Ukraine, OSCE, EU and USA) were resumed with international mediation after a long standstill. In 2014 the negotiation process came to a standstill again.

Moldova History


Tighina [- gi ː -] until 1990 Bendery, Turkish Bender town in the south of Moldova, on the right Dnjestrufer against Tiraspol 91 900 residents; Mechanical engineering, electrotechnical, light, food and luxury food industries; Transport hub.

History: Founded in the 12th century as a Genoese settlement, Tighina was conquered by the Turks in 1484 and expanded into a fortress in 1538. At Tighina, Charles XII. 1709-13 his camp. Conquered by Russians in 1770, 1789 and 1806, the city and Bessarabia became part of Russia in 1812; 1918-40 Tighina was Romanian. Since the armed conflict in the Dniester conflict in mid-1992, Tighina has been controlled by the internationally unrecognized Republic of Transnistria (Dniester region).