Moldavian art. The development of Moldovan art (also Moldovan art, based on the historical landscape of Moldova and the former Bessarabia, which encompasses today’s state of Moldova) was closely related to Russian, Ukrainian and Romanian art. The oldest artifacts found so far belong to the 3rd – 2nd centuries. Millennium BC BC (ornate weapons from the Borodino treasure trove). From a later time are i.a. Painted ceramics, decorated metal objects and jewelry made of silver and bronze have been preserved. After the city was founded in 10/11. In the 19th century AD, architecture in what was then the Principality of Moldova (since the middle of the 14th century) experienced a noticeable boom; Fortresses (Tighina, 1538) and the Moldavian monasteries were built next to all single-nave churches (Church of the Assumption of the Virgin, 16th / 18th century, and Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary “Masarakijewskaja”, 18th century, in Chișinău; Kaprijani monastery church, mid-16th century). A special landscape feature are the dome constructions, so-called »Moldavian vaults«, taken over from the wooden block construction, with pendentives stacked on top of one another and shifted against each other (Rudj monastery church, 1774). Inside, the churches were decorated with icons and wall paintings. The unplastered masonry of the exterior shows blind arches, friezes and ceramic decorations. After Bessarabia was annexed to Russia (1812), Russian classicism gained a strong influence. In the 1920s and 30s, suggestions from Art Nouveau were adopted. In contrast, the village architecture retained more traditional forms (covered veranda / gallery, wood carving and painting decor). The emergence of a national fine art has been through exhibitions of the Peredwischniki, the establishment of a drawing school in Chișinău and the »Bessarabische Gesellschaft der Kunstfreunde« founded in 1903.
Moldovan language and literature
Moldovan Language and Literature, Moldovan Language and Literature. The Moldovan or Moldovan language is a Dakorumian dialect of the Romanian language and is spoken in Moldova, in the former Bessarabia as well as in northern Romania, parts of the Banat, in Bukovina and in the south of Ukraine. Since the Moldovan language was made the official language in Moldova in 1989, the transition to writing with the Latin alphabet (previously Cyrillic script from 1941) according to the rules of Romanian spelling has taken place. In 1994, the name of the official language was written into the Moldovan constitution as “Moldavian” (previously Romanian), but the identity with Romanian was accepted.
Romanian- language literature in Moldova has roots and traditions in common with that of Romanian literature; it developed on the basis of rich oral folk literature since the 1920s, was first committed to the cult of the proletariat and later to socialist realism. In Bessarabia in the 1920s and 30s a traditional, autochthonous literature was cultivated, which was characterized by the idealization of rural conditions and a closeness to nature (Nicolai Costenco, * 1913, † 1993). Even after the Second World War, Moldovan literature was largely shaped by political conformism. The most important representatives of post-war literature included Emilian Bucov (* 1909, † 1984), Andrei Lupan (* 1912, † 1992) and George Meniuc (* 1918, † 1987). The traditional rural-village theme has dominated since the 1960s. The turn to the regional and archaic and the use of the marginalized Moldovan language are interpreted as an escape from the politicizing functionalization of literature and as an idyllic strengthening of the Moldovan national consciousness (Ion Constantin Ciobanu, * 1927, † 2001; Ion Drută, * 1928). During perestroika, the process of “national rebirth” was initiated by pro-Romanian writers such as Ion Drută, the poet Grigore Vieru (* 1935, † 2009) and others. driven forward. Traditionalism dominated the literature after the political change: Grigore Vieru and Nicolae Dabija (* 1948) defend the Romanian identity among others. with the sacralization of national values. Europe-oriented and postmodern, the “eighties” (optzeciști), influenced by the generation of the same name, have appeared as a group since the mid-1990s. Vasile Gârnet (* 1958) and Vitalie Ciobanu (* 1964).
According to andyeducation, Bălţi [ bəltsi], Russian Belzy, Bel’cy, 1990-94 Belz [Romanian -z], is the third largest city in Moldova and economic center in the north of the country, at Raut 97 900 residents; University (founded in 1945), national theater, art museums; Construction, food and electrotechnical industries; Transport hub.
Mentioned in a document in the 15th century; city since 1818.
Tiraspol, [Greek Tyras »Dniester«], city in southeast Moldova, on the left bank of the Dniester, administrative and economic center of the Dniester region, 133 800 residents (according to the 2004 census: 42% Russians, 33% Ukrainians, 15% Moldovans); University, local museum, theater; Machine and vehicle construction, electrotechnical, light (in particular textile), food and luxury goods industries (including wineries and distilleries); Thermal power plant (2,000 MW); Transport hub, airport and port.
Tiraspol was built next to a fortress founded in 1792; 1924–40 capital of the Moldovan ASSR. In 1990 the Russians and Ukrainians living in the Dniester region proclaimed the internationally unrecognized “Transnistrian Moldavian Republic”.
Chişinău [ki ʃ i nə ʊ, Romanian] (Russian Kishinev), capital Moldova having (2017) 685,900 residents. The city is the country’s leading cultural, scientific and economic center and the seat of several universities. The most important branches of industry are mechanical engineering, food, tobacco, textile, electrical and metal industries.
Chişinău belonged from 1812 with Bessarabia to Russia, 1918–40 and 1941–44 to Romania. In 1940 Chişinău became the capital of the Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic, from 1991 of the Republic of Moldova.