Cologne has an abundance of important Romanesque churches: Sankt Andreas (pillar basilica with crossing tower 13th century, west vestibule, rich sculptural decoration, Gothic choir started in 1414, Maccabees shrine completed in 1527; grave of Albertus Magnus); Saint Apostles (11th century) with a richly structured triangular choir (1192 to around 1230); Cäcilienkirche (2nd half of the 12th century, today Museum Schnütgen; sacred medieval sculpture and cabaret); Sankt Georg (11th – 12th centuries, the only columned basilica in the Rhineland, five-aisled crypt, good capital sculpture in the west choir 1180 ff., Expressive forked cross 1380/90); Sankt Gereon (core late Roman 4th century, hall crypt 1067/69, choir with double tower apse around 1150, the four-storey decagon expanded in 1219–27); Sankt Kunibert (late Staufer vaulted basilica 1215–47, with glass painting cycle around 1230, good plastic, double tower apse); Sankt Maria im Kapitol (built above the Roman Capitol temple, foundation building at the end of the 7th century by Plectrudis, the wife of the Franconian house merchant donated to Pippin II the Middle; Flat-roofed basilica consecrated in 1065 with three-cornered choir and tower-flanked west building, arcade wall in the west, Flemish renaissance lettner 1523, forked cross 1304, grave slabs of plectrudes around 1160 and 1304, unique carved wooden doors in the middle of the 11th century, extensive hall crypt); Sankt Maria Lyskirchen (gallery basilica around 1210/20 with important late Romanesque frescoes); Groß Sankt Martin (vaulted basilica with clover leaf choir, around 1150–1250, mighty, 84 m high crossing tower); only the tower (1460–86) of Klein Sankt Martin has been preserved; Sankt Pantaleon (953–980, with Ottonian three-towered westwork around 1000 and crypt with the grave of Archbishop Bruno I, Romanesque aisles around 1150, choir 1619–22 from C. Wamser, grave of Empress Theophanu in the south side choir, rood screen 1503 and baroque organ 1652, high altar 1749, important church treasure); Sankt Ursula (late antique foundation building, new building around 1135, first Romanesque gallery basilica on the Lower Rhine, west building, Gothic choir consecrated in 1287, in the “Golden Chamber”, 1643, the church treasure); Sankt Severin (late antique burial chapel, new building of the hall crypt consecrated in 1043, choir with double tower apse 1237, choir stalls from the end of the 13th century, west tower 16th century, nave 1479 ff.; the Roman burial ground below is accessible). See abbreviationfinder for acronyms about Cologne.
In addition to the cathedral, the following are Gothic: Minorite Church (1245 to around 1350, graves of J. Duns Scotus and A. Kolping; rest of the cloister included in the Museum of Applied Arts), Antoniterkirche (14th century, including E. Barlach’s»Angel of Death«, 1938), Carthusian Church (consecrated in 1393, with a cycle of sculptures in the beautiful style) and St. Peter’s Church (around 1515–30, late Gothic gallery basilica with altar painting by P. P. Rubens, 1637). The former Jesuit Church of St. Mary’s Assumption is a post-Gothic gallery basilica (1618–29 by Wamser) with a splendid interior (colored late Renaissance stucco, reticulated vaults, baroque pulpit and high altar). Maria vom Frieden (1643–1716), Maria in der Kupfergasse (1705–15), Elendskirche (1765–71), Schloss Weißhaus in Sülz (summer residence of the abbots of Sankt Pantaleon) and Haus Arff in Worringen (1750– 55). Wahn Castle (18th century) in the district of the same name houses the theater studies collection of the University of Cologne. The Trinity Church (1857–60) was built by A. Stüler in the style of Berlin’s late classicism. Numerous examples of historicist church architecture (Cologne was a center of neo-Gothic) have survived, especially in the Neustadt and in the individual districts.
Important secular buildings are the late Romanesque Overstolzenhaus (around 1225/30), the Gothic town hall (around 1360, tower 1407–14, Renaissance vestibule 1569–73), the former festival and dance house Gürzenich (next to Alt Sankt Alban, 1668–72, today a memorial for the dead of World War II), the former armory (1594–1606, including the Cologne City Museum). Several archways and parts of the wall have been preserved from the Hohenstaufen city fortifications (1180 ff.); the Bayenturm (1180 ff., rebuilt in the 19th century, rebuilt after destruction in the Second World War and restored in 1987 ff.) was reopened in 1994 as the »FrauenMediaTurm«.
The numerous buildings of modern architecture in the old town include, among others. the Bräckerbohm-Haus (1929) by P. Bonatz, the commercial building Unter Sachsenhausen 37 (1914) by P. Behrens and the former Tietz department store (»Kaufhof«, 1912-14) by Wilhelm Kreis. At Gereonshof are the high-rise (55 m, 1950–55) by Erich Hennes, the courtyard of honor designed by A. Breker and the rotunda of the Gerling Quarter (1964–66, Breker and others). Joachim Schürmanncreated the residential area around Groß Sankt Martin in 1975-78, and Walter von Lom built it on Rheingasse1975 a residential and office building. In the Neumarkt area, several shopping centers linked by arcades were built in the 1980s, including the Olivandenhof (1913 by Hermann Pflaume), which was converted by Hentrich, Petschnigg & Partner.
Schwarz (urban planning) and W. Riphahn, who had already made contributions in the 1920s / 1930s (British Cultural Institute, 1949/50, today the seat of the Cologne Art Association; French Cultural Institute, 1951–53) played a significant role in the reconstruction of the city; Opera and theater, 1954–57; »Bastei« restaurant, 1924, 1928, 1958; residential and commercial buildings, 1957/58, as well as residential buildings). Of Black current Museum of Applied Arts (1955-57) and the expansion of the Gürzenich originate (1952-54, with Karl band; modern reconstruction by Kraemer, Sieverts & Partner 1996/97), by Peter Busmann and Godfrid Haberer museums and Philharmonic (1982–86) east of the cathedral. O. M. Ungers designed the new building for the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum – Fondation Corboud between the town hall and Gürzenich (1996–2000). KOLUMBA, the art museum of the Archdiocese of Cologne (2003-07) was created according toplans by P. Zumthor. The late Gothic church of Sankt Kolumba, which was destroyed in 1945, with thechapel “Madonna in the rubble” builtby G. Böhm in 1950 was includedin this new building. The Kulturquartier am Neumarkt inaugurated in 2010, including with Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum and Museum Schnütgen, was built according to the plans of the architects Uli Schneider and Heiner Sendelbach. The 148.5 m high »KölnTurm« (design: J. Nouvel) marks the new “MediaPark” as “Campanile”, which was built in 1988 / 89–2003 according to an urban planning concept by the “Zeidler Grinnell Partnership Architects” office with the participation of well-known architects. The former Rheinauhafen is now used as a residential, cultural and commercial area (»crane houses« etc.). Cologne / Bonn Airport (1970, by Paul Schneider von Esleben) was expanded (competition win: Büro Murphy & Jahn, 1992; opening: Terminal 2, 2000; new building at Terminal 1 and airport train station based on plans by H. Jahn, 2004).