In the reports that the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) annually publishes on developments in the countries of the world, Australia belongs to the top tier. Such assessments have included such things as life expectancy, health, knowledge, education, living standards and human rights. However, the description does not correspond to the country’s urinals, who live in far more difficult conditions than the rest of the population.
The foundation of Australia’s social security system was laid in the early 1900s. This now includes pensions, health insurance, unemployment benefits and disability insurance and more. The right to paid parental leave has varied greatly, currently 18 weeks of paid leave applies, but you can stay home from work for a total of 12 months without compensation.
- Countryaah Official Site: Official statistics for population in Australia, including population growth, density, and estimation in next 50 years.
Health care is well developed. Since many Australians live in isolation, there is also airborne medical care. Through the 1984 healthcare reform, Medicare, all basic public health care became free of charge. However, some medical expenses have to be paid by the patient. About half of the residents also have private health insurance in order to receive private care. Some drugs are also subsidized. One problem in health care is that many are cared for in hospitals for illnesses that could have been previously treated in primary care or prevented through health information. Despite this, the health situation is relatively good.
There are few women in top positions in business and politics. After the 2016 elections, about 30 percent of the members of parliament were women. Women’s trafficking is prohibited by law, but it is still relatively common, especially in Aboriginal families.
A large part of the indigenous population lives in difficult social conditions. Attempts to integrate Aborigines into the rest of society have not been very successful. Unemployment is far higher among urine residents than among whites. The health situation is considerably worse with about ten years of shorter average life. Social exclusion is common, with crime, alcoholism and suicide as a result.
A number of projects have been aimed at promoting the rights of indigenous peoples. In 2007, the campaign “Close the Gap” was launched, which aims to reduce the gaps between indigenous people and the rest of the population. In a follow-up report 2016, it was noted that progress was made in only two of seven priority areas – reducing child mortality and increasing the number of students leaving high school – while major challenges remained, including health and employment.
Australia has long been one of the few Western countries that lacked legislation that allows same-sex marriage. In the fall of 2017, the statistical authority, on behalf of the government, conducted a postal vote among Australians for two months. After the yes side won the vote, in December 2017 Parliament approved a proposal to allow same-sex marriage (see also Current Policy).
A large number of organizations work to promote the rights of LGBT people in the country and in Sydney the largest pride parade in the world is held each year.
FACTS – SOCIAL CONDITIONS
Infant Mortality: 3 per 1000 births (2018)
Percentage of HIV infected: 0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young women
0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of HIV infected among young men: 0.1 percent (2018)
Proportion of population with access to clean water: 100.0 percent (2015)
Proportion of the population having access to toilets: 100.0 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on health care as a percentage of GDP: 9.4 percent (2015)
Public expenditure on health care per person: US $ 5,002 (2016)
Proportion of women in parliament: 29 percent (2018)
Arrested for planned terrorist act
Prime Minister Abbott states that there has been increased activity among “terrorist sympathizers” following the hostage-land raid in Sydney. Two men are arrested in the city, suspected of planning terrorist acts. The arrests are said to be linked to the raids conducted in September 2014.
Hostage drama in Sydney
Two people are killed in a hostage frame in Sydney. The perpetrator, an Iranian, is also killed in connection with the police storming the cafe where 17 people have been detained.
New criticized immigration legislation
New controversial immigration legislation is approved in Parliament. The law gives refugees the right to a temporary residence permit for between three and five years. The law is criticized for not giving refugees any security in the longer term.
Refugees have to wait
The government decides that asylum seekers who went to Indonesia to apply for asylum in Australia through the UNHCR refugee organization should not have their applications processed after 1 July 2014.
Plans for reduced emissions
The government is settling with a conservative small party and two senators on a plan to get companies to cut their carbon emissions. According to the plan, a fund will be established and funds from the fund will be used to pay companies that reduce their emissions or switch to environmentally friendly energy.
Australia in violation of IS
The government announces that the country will contribute fighter aircraft to the US-led military operation against the Islamic State in Iraq (see Iraq: Calendar). Australia is also sending special forces to assist the Iraqi military with advice.
The level of terrorist threats is raised
The government announces that the level of terrorist threat is raised to “high”, the second highest step on the terrorist threat scale, which includes four levels. Previously, the threat was classified as “medium”. The reason for the increase is the growing number of Australians who have joined the Islamic State or any other militant Islamist movement in the Middle East and are now beginning to return to Australia. Just a few days later, the police arrest 15 people suspected of planning terrorist acts. The people are said to be radical Islamists with ties to the Islamic State, some of whom have returned from Syria and Iraq. Their plan was to film how they cut the heads of someone picked up from the street.
Elimination of carbon dioxide tax
The Senate votes to abolish the so-called carbon tax that Labor introduced in July 2012 and which the bourgeois government promised to abolish. The lower house has previously voted for the same proposal and the tax is thus withdrawn. Instead, the government wants to try to get companies to save energy and reduce their emissions by offering them various forms of benefits.
Refugee policy receives further criticism
Australia’s refugee policy raises new headlines as authorities tow a boat with 41 refugees to Sri Lanka. Human rights activists and the UN Refugee Commission UNHCR accuses the country of violating the rights of refugees when they have their cases assessed at sea. The Supreme Court is preventing the authorities from bringing back another boat with 153 refugees from India. Eventually, these refugees are released ashore in Australia but later transferred to the island nation of Nauru. Since the summer of 2013, Nauru has been welcoming refugees arriving in Australian territory.
Several thousand students in several major cities protest against planned cuts and changes in higher education.
Plans for reduced budget deficit
The government announces that it plans to halve the budget deficit in 2015, among other things through cuts and tax increases.
New immigration authority
A new authority is formed for immigration and customs issues. The aim is to make the handling of these issues more efficient while at the same time tightening border controls. More patrol boats will also have oversight of the coasts.
The Court in The Hague shall resolve a dispute
The International Court of Justice in The Hague will resolve a dispute between East Timor and Australia over an agreement on oil and gas revenues in the Timor Sea from 2006. East Timor claims that the agreement disadvantages the country. In addition, East Timor claims that Australia should have eavesdropped East Timorian key personnel in connection with the signing of the agreement. In November, Australia conducted a house search against one of East Timor’s legal representatives in Canberra and seized documentation in the dispute.
Refugees sent back
Several reports say Australian vessels stopped and sent back boats with refugees to Indonesia. In connection with these maneuvers, Australian vessels have accidentally entered Indonesian waters. The Australian government sends a formal apology to the Indonesian government, which is critical to the rejection of refugees while relations are already frosty due to the disclosures last year (see November 2013) that Australia was intercepting Indonesian President Yudhoyono. Australia is also being criticized by human rights organizations for dealing with refugees, while the UN Refugee Agency UNHCR will investigate whether the country has violated international law when the refugees are rejected.